Hydrogeological-geotechnical Characterization and Analysis for Construction of a Subsurface Reservoir at a Coastal Site in the Nakdong Deltaic Plain, Busan, South Korea
Department of Geological Engineering, PetroVietnam University (PVU), Baria-Vung Tau, 790000, Vietnam
Department of Civil Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan, 49315, Korea
Copyright © 2023 Author(s). Published by Nan Yang Academy of Sciences Pte. Ltd.
This is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.
Store and recover clean groundwater from a man-made subsurface reservoir is useful for the development of coastal cities. A full-scale pilot field test of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes were conducted in the Nakdong River plain, Korea. The process involved constructing a hydrogeological-geotechnical model based on investigation data, including the target aquifer that was located between 30 and 67 meters deep. The subsurface response to water pumping was analyzed, and this led to the creation of charts to determine the maximum allowable injection pressure and maximum recharge rate. For two factors of safety of 1.5 and 2.0, the maximum injection head rise was estimated to be 9.7 meters and 7.25 meters, respectively, corresponding to recharge rates of 5,000 and 3,800 m3/d. One-dimensional FE consolidation analyses were conducted for different groundwater drawdowns (2, 5, 10 and 15 m) and the results showed a good match with the monitored settlement and rebound for the 2-meter drawdown case. The study concluded that the injection rate could potentially be much higher than what was tested, which would increase the capacity of the subsurface reservoir. The lessons learned from this study are useful for similar coastal sites in terms of the application of MAR technology.
Keywords: Artificial recharge, Subsurface reservoir, Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), Finite element (FE) consolidation analysis, Land subsidence control, Nakdong plain
 Pyne, R.D.G., 2005. Aquifer storage recovery, a guide to groundwater recharge through wells, 2nd edition. ASR Systems LLC: Gainesville. pp. 608.
 Casanova, J., Devau, N., Pettenati, M., 2016. Managed aquifer recharge: An overview of issues and options. Integrated groundwater management: Concepts, approaches and challenges. Springer, Cham.: Switzerland. pp. 413-434.
 International Association of Hydrogeologists—Commission on Managing Aquifer Recharge [Internet] [cited 2023 Mar 24]. Available from: https://recharge.iah.org/
 Dillon, P., Stuyfzand, P., Grischek, T., et al., 2019. Sixty years of global progress in managed aquifer recharge. Hydrogeology Journal. 27(1), 1-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-018-1841-z
 Sherif, M., Sefelnasr, A., Al Rashed, M., et al., 2023. A review of managed aquifer recharge potential in the Middle East and North Africa Region with examples from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Water. 15(4), 742. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040742
 Giao, P.H., 1996. Artificial recharge of Bangkok aquifer system for mitigatin of land subsidence [PhD thesis]. Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology (AIT).
 Giao, P.H., Phien-Wej, N., Honjo, Y., 1998. FEM quasi-3D modelling of responses to artificial recharge in the Bangkok multiaquifer system. Environmental Modelling & Software. 14(2-3), 141-151.
 Giao, P.H., Paveechana, T., Saowiang, K. (editors), 2013. Consolidation settlement analysis with reference to groundwater recovery in the Bangkok multi-aquifer system. The 1st Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference cum Inaugural AGSSEA Conference, Advances in Geotechnical Infrastructure. Research Publishing: Singapore. p. 567-573.
 Phien-Wej, N., Giao, P.H., Nutalaya, P., 1998. Field experiment of artificial recharge through a well with reference to land subsidence control. Engineering Geology. 50(1-2), 187-201.
 Giao, P.H., Hue, V.T., Han, N.D., et al., 2020. Land subsidence prediction for a new urban mass rapid transit line in Hanoi. Underground Space. 5(2), 93-104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.undsp.2018.11.002
 DAU, 2017. Internal Report of Geotechnical Investigation, Dong A University, Busan, Korea.
 Chung, S.G., Giao, P.H., Kim, G.J., et al., 2002. Geotechnical properties of Pusan clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 39(5), 1050-1060.