Magnetic Susceptibility Reveals Differential Retrogression in Meta-Mafic Enclave Consistent with Metamorphic P–T Estimation and Petrography

Qiqi Ou

1. State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China
2. College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China

Ross N. Mitchell

1. State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China
2. College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China

Lei Zhao

State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China

Xiaofang He

School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing, 100083, China

Rucheng Zhang

1. State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China
2. College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36956/eps.v3i1.1048

Received: 3 March 2024; Received in revised form: 19 April 2024; Accepted: 28 April 2024; Published: 30 April 2024

Copyright © 2024 Author(s). Published by Nan Yang Academy of Sciences Pte. Ltd.

Creative Commons LicenseThis is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.


Abstract

Magnetic susceptibility is widely applied in geology, but its use in the study of metamorphic rocks has been limited due to the complex nature of metamorphism. In this study, analyzing a partially retrogressed mafic enclave within Archean TTG gneiss from the Jiaobei Terrane, North China craton, we incorporate magnetic susceptibility with conventional metamorphic (petrographic and major element) proxies in order to investigate profiles of metamorphic retrogression. The magnetic susceptibility results show more complete retrogression in the direction parallel to the tectonic fabric and partial retrogression perpendicular to it. This geophysical observation, which is broadly consistent with the petrological observations and PT estimates, suggests that the availability of fluids and perhaps even non-lithostatic pressure play roles in the preservation of such differential retrogression. This study thus introduces magnetic susceptibility as a novel proxy in this context, revealing its utility in rapidly and quantitatively identifying variable retrogression gradients consistent with, but with more precision than, measured metamorphic pressures.

Keywords: Retrograde metamorphism, Retrogression, Magnetic susceptibility, Mafic enclave, Thermomagnetic susceptibility


References

[1] Tauxe, L., 2010. Essentials of paleomagnetism. University of California Press: Berkeley. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520946378

[2] Powell, D.W., 1970. Magnetised rocks within the Lewisian of Western Scotland and under the Southern Uplands. Scottish Journal of Geology. 6(4), 353–369. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/sjg06040353

[3] Schlinger, C.M., 1985. Magnetization of lower crust and interpretation of regional magnetic anomalies: Example from Lofoten and Vesterålen, Norway. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 90(B13), 11484–11504. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/JB090iB13p11484

[4] Schlinger, C.M., Khan, M.J., Wasilewski, P., 1989. Rock magnetism of the Kohistan island arc, Pakistan. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar. 22, 83–101.

[5] Krutikhovskaya, Z.A., Pashkevich, I.K., Simonenko, T.N., 1973. Magnetic anomalies of Precambrian Shields and some problems of their geological interpretation. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 10(5), 629–636. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/e73-063

[6] Wasilewski, P., Fountain, D.M., 1982. The Ivrea Zone as a model for the distribution of magnetization in the continental crust. Geophysical Research Letters. 9(4), 333–336. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/GL009i004p00333

[7] Belluso, E., Biino, G., Lanza, R., 1990. New data on the rock magnetism in the Ivrea-Verbano zone (Northern Italy) and its relationships to the magnetic anomalies. Tectonophysics. 182(1–2), 79–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(90)90343-7

[8] Williams, M.C., Shive, P.N., Fountain, D.M., et al., 1985. Magnetic properties of exposed deep crustal rocks from the Superior Province of Manitoba. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 76(1–2), 176–184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(85)90157-8

[9] Liu, Q., Liu, Q., Zhang, Z., et al., 2007. Magnetic properties of ultrahigh-pressure eclogites controlled by retrograde metamorphism: a case study from the ZK703 drillhole in Donghai, eastern China. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 160(3–4), 181–191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2006.10.001

[10] Rosenblum, S., Brownfield, I.K., 2000. Magnetic suspectibilities of minerals. U.S. Geological Survey: Reston. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr99529

[11] Zhao, G., Sun, M., Wilde, S.A., et al., 2005. Late Archean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the North China Craton: key issues revisited. Precambrian Research. 136(2), 177–202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2004.10.002

[12] Zhang, R., Zhai, M., Zhao, L., 2022. Correlating metamorphic mineral assemblages with metamorphic ages in rocks recording multiple tectonothermal events: A case study of the Jiaobei terrane, eastern North China Craton. Precambrian Research. 377, 106731. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2022.106731

[13] Liu, D.Y., Nutman, A.P., Compston, W., et al., 1992. Remnants of ≥ 3800 Ma crust in the Chinese part of the Sino-Korean craton. Geology. 20(4), 339–342. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0339:ROMCIT>2.3.CO;2

[14] Zhai, M., 2014. Multi-stage crustal growth and cratonization of the North China Craton. Geoscience Frontiers. 5(4), 457–469. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2014.01.003

[15] Zhai, M., Li, T.S., Peng, P., et al., 2010. Precambrian key tectonic events and evolution of the North China Craton. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 338, 235–262. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/SP338.12

[16] Zhai, M.G., Santosh, M., 2011. The early Precambrian odyssey of the North China Craton: A synoptic overview. Gondwana Research. 20(1), 6–25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2011.02.005

[17] Zhao, G., Cawood, P.A., 2012. Precambrian geology of China. Precambrian Research. 222–223, 13–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2012.09.017

[18] Tang, J., Zheng, Y.F., Wu, Y.B., et al., 2007. Geochronology and geochemistry of metamorphic rocks in the Jiaobei terrane: Constraints on its tectonic affinity in the Sulu orogen. Precambrian Research. 152(1–2), 48–82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2006.09.001

[19] Jahn, B.M., Liu, D., Wan, Y., et al., 2008. Archean crustal evolution of the Jiaodong Peninsula, China, as revealed by zircon SHRIMP geochronology, elemental and Nd-isotope geochemistry. American Journal of Science. 308(3), 232–269. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2475/03.2008.03

[20] Wan, Y., Liu, S., Song, Z., et al., 2021. The complexities of Mesoarchean to late Paleoproterozoic magmatism and metamorphism in the Qixia area, eastern North China Craton: Geology, geochemistry and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating. American Journal of Science. 321(1–2), 1–82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2475/01.2021.01

[21] Zhu, G., Xu, J.W., 1994. The history of deformation and metamorphic evolution in the Jiaobei Area of Shandong Province. Journal of Hefei University of Technology (Natural Science). (3), 148–162. (in Chinese).

[22] Zhai, M., Guo, J., Liu, W., 2005. Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic continental evolution and tectonic history of the North China Craton: A review. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. 24(5), 547–561. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2004.01.018

[23] Liu, J., Liu, F., Ding, Z., et al., 2013. The growth, reworking and metamorphism of early Precambrian crust in the Jiaobei terrane, the North China Craton: Constraints from U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic systematics, and REE concentrations of zircon from Archean granitoid gneisses. Precambrian Research. 224, 287–303. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2012.10.003

[24] Zhao, L., Zou, Y., Liu, P., et al., 2023. An early Precambrian “orogenic belt” exhumed by the Phanerozoic tectonic events: A case study of the eastern North China Craton. Earth-Science Reviews. 241, 104416. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2023.104416

[25] Xue, D.S., Su, B.X., Zhang, D.P., et al., 2020. Quantitative verification of 1:100 diluted fused glass beads for X-ray fluorescence analysis of geological specimens. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 35, 2826–2833. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/D0JA00273A

[26] Zhang, D.P., Xue, D.S., Liu, Y.H., et al., 2020. Comparative study of three mixing methods in fusion technique for determining major and minor elements using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Sensors. 20(18), 5325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185325

[27] Mitchell, R.N., Kirscher, U., Kunzmann, M., et al., 2021. Gulf of Nuna: Astrochronologic correlation of a Mesoproterozoic oceanic euxinic event. Geology. 49(1), 25–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1130/G47587.1

[28] Mitchell, R.N., Gernon, T.M., Cox, G.M., et al., 2021. Orbital forcing of ice sheets during snowball Earth. Nature Communications. 12, 4187. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24439-4

[29] Dunlop, D.J., 1983. On the demagnetizing energy and demagnetizing factor of a multidomain ferromagnetic cube. Geophysical Research Letters. 10(1), 79–82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/GL010i001p00079

[30] Dunlop, D.J., 1984. A method of determining demagnetizing factor from multidomain hysteresis. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 89(B1), 553–558. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/JB089iB01p00553

[31] Zhang, Q., Appel, E., 2023. Reversible thermal hysteresis in heating-cooling cycles of magnetic susceptibility: A fine particle effect of magnetite. Geophysical Research Letters. 50(6), e2023GL102932. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2023GL102932

[32] Smith, D.O., 1956. Magnetization of a magnetite single crystal near the curie point. Physical Review. 102(4), 959–963. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.102.959

[33] Dunlop, D.J., 2014. High-temperature susceptibility of magnetite: A new pseudo-single-domain effect. Geophysical Journal International. 199(2), 707–716. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu247

[34] Xiang, H., Connolly, J.A., 2022. GeoPS: An interactive visual computing tool for thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 40(2), 243–255. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jmg.12626

[35] Holland, T.J.B., Powell, R., 2011. An improved and extended internally consistent thermodynamic dataset for phases of petrological interest, involving a new equation of state for solids. Journal of metamorphic Geology. 29(3), 333–383. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1314.2010.00923.x

[36] Xu, H., Jin, Z., Mason, R., et al., 2009. Magnetic susceptibility of ultrahigh pressure eclogite: The role of retrogression. Tectonophysics. 475(2), 279–290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.03.020

[37] Jamtveit, B., Austrheim, H., Malthe-Sørenssen, A., 2000. Accelerated hydration of the Earth’s deep crust induced by stress perturbations. Nature. 408, 75–78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/35040537

[38] Jamtveit, B., Malthe-Sørenssen, A., Kostenko, O., 2008. Reaction enhanced permeability during retrogressive metamorphism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 267(3–4), 620–627. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2007.12.016

[39] Jamtveit, B., Austrheim, H., 2010. Metamorphism: The role of fluids. Elements. 6(3), 153–158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2113/gselements.6.3.153

[40] Zuza, A.V., Levy, D.A., Mulligan, S.R., 2022. Geologic field evidence for non-lithostatic overpressure recorded in the North American Cordillera hinterland, northeast Nevada. Geoscience Frontiers. 13(2), 101099. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2020.10.006

[41] Gerya, T., 2015. Tectonic overpressure and underpressure in lithospheric tectonics and metamorphism. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 33(8), 785–800. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jmg.12144

[42] Schmalholz, S.M., Podladchikov, Y.Y., 2013. Tectonic overpressure in weak crustal-scale shear zones and implications for the exhumation of high-pressure rocks. Geophysical Research Letters. 40(10), 1984–1988. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50417