Mon-Fri(09:00-18:00 hrs)

Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Land in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

Terwase Shabu

Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

Sussan Fate

Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

Mfanyo Keziah Ukula

Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v3i1.321

Copyright and Licensing

The authors shall retain the copyright of their work but allow the Publisher to publish, copy, distribute, and convey the work.

NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences publishes accepted manuscripts under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). Authors who submit their papers for publication by NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences agree to have the CC BY-NC 4.0 license applied to their work, and that anyone is allowed to reuse the article or part of it free of charge for non-commercia. As long as you follow the license terms and original source is properly cited, anyone may copy, redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material.

Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers

It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyright holder. In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. The journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.

In exceptional circumstances articles may be licensed differently. If you have specific condition (such as one linked to funding) that does not allow this license, please mention this to the editorial office of the journal at submission. Exceptions will be granted at the discretion of the publisher.


This study assessed the Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Land in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State. The data collected were population figures and land use for three Epoch (1997, 2007 and 2017). The satellite images were sourced from the National Center for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Jos. In the analysis, cross change detection analysis and overlay analysis using ArcGIS 9.0 was performed to detect where land-use change has occurred and which type of land use agricultural land has transformed too. The GIS analysis revealed that there is an increase in settlement and a decrease in Agricultural land from 1997 – 2017. It also revealed that 99.51ha of agricultural land use has been converted to settlement between 1997 and 2017. The results reveal that urbanization has significant effects on Agricultural Land in the study area and these effects include; decreasing agricultural land, decreasing agricultural activities and decrease in farm size. If the growth in the population of Makurdi LGA continues unchecked, agricultural land will be significantly depleted in the future. The study recommended that there should be effective law and policy to control population growth sustainably to minimize the negative impact of urbanization in the study area. Also, urban agriculture should be encouraged to sustain the food supply in urban areas.

Keywords: Urbanization, Agricultural land, Population growth, Food supply, Makurdi, Benue State


[1] Sjoberg, A. (1960) The Pre-industrial City: Past present and future Free Press, New York.

[2] Fellmann, J., Getis, A. and Getis, J. (1996). Human Geography: Landscape of Human Activities, USA, Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc.

[3] Lambin, E. F., Geist, H. J. and Lepers, E. (2003).Dynamics of Land-use and Land-cover changing Tropical Regions, Annual Review Environmental Resources, 28.

[4] Oueslati, W., Sulenie, J. and Wu, J. (2014). Urbanization and Agricultural Structural Adjustments: Some Lessons From European Cities, Working Paper.

[5] Mandere, M. N., Ness, B. and Anderberg, S. (2010).Peri-urban development, livelihood change and household income: A case study of Peri-urban Nyahururu, Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 2(5), 73-83.

[6] Oguntoyinbo, J.S. (1981) Aspect of Urban Microclimate. The Case of Ibadan. In: Sada, P.O. and Oguntoyinbo, J.S., Eds., Urbanization Processes and Problem in Nigeria, Ibadan University Press, Ibadan,137-139.

[7] Adedeji, Adebayo (1973) Urbanization Challenge in Nigeria: A Race Against Time. In Adedeji, A and Rowland, L (eds) Management Problems of Rapid Urbanization in Nigeria. Ile-ife: University of Ife Press.

[8] NITP. (2014). The State of Urban and Regional Planning in Nigeria. NITP.

[9] Muhammed, S. N., Sabiu, N. and Khalil, M. S. (2015) An overview of urbanization and its challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria. Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 1(1), 19-29.

[10] Shabu T., (2010). The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development, International Journal of Economic Development and Investment,Vol. 1, No. 2 & 3.

[11] Sati, V. P., Deng, W., Zhang, S., Wan, J. and Song, X.(2017). Urbanization and Its Impact on Rural Livelihood: A Study of Xichang City Administration, Sichuan Province, China, Chinese Journal of Urban and Environmental Studies, Vol. 5, No. 4.

[12] Denga, D.I.(1995).Tiv People: origins, Migrations and Social Set-Up,Benue State,The Land of Great Potentials: A Compendium, edited by Denga,D.I, Rapid Educational Publishers ltd,Nigeria.

[13] Angel, S., Sheppard, S., and Civco, D. (2005). The Dynamics of Global Urban Expansion. Washington, DC: World Bank.

[14] Adeboyejo, T. and Abolade, O. (2007), Household Responses to Urban Encroachment on the Rural Hinterland in the Ogbomoso Urban Fringe, Nigeria.http://www.populationenvironmentresearch.org/

[15] workshops.jsp#w2007.

[16] Olima, W. H. A., (2003). Urbanisation and Housing Challenges. Cities in Africa Conference. Rapporteur’s report.

[17] Naab, F. Z., Dinye, R. D. and Kasanga, R. K. (2013).Urbanisation and its Impact on Agricultural Lands in Growing Cities in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Tamale in Ghana. Modern Social Science Journal, 2, No. 2, 256-287.

[18] Adesina F.A, (2005). Geo-information and Natural Resources Exploitation in Africa; United Nations Economic and Social Council. Paper Delivered in Fourth Meeting of the Committee on Development

[19] Information, Addis Ababa on 23-28 April.

[20] Appiah, D. O. Bugri, J. T. Forkuo, E. K. and Boateng, P. K. (2014). Determinants of Peri-Urbanization and Land Use Change Patterns in Peri-Urban Ghana. Journal of Sustainable Development; Vol. 7, No. 6; 2014 ISSN 1913-9063 E-ISSN 1913-9071 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education.

[21] Dekolo, S. O and Olayinka, D. N. (2014). Monitoring peri-urban land use change with multi temporal Landsat imagery. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265476498 accessed on 13 August, 2017.

[22] Mugish, J. and Nyandwi, E. (2015). Kigali City Peri-Urbanization and its Implications on Peri-Urban Land Use Dynamics: Cases of Muyumbu and Nyakaliro. GeoTechRwanda 2015 – Kigali, 18- 20 November 2015.

[23] Zasada, I. (2011). Multi-functional peri-urban agriculture-A review of societal demands and the provision of goods and services by farming. Land Use Policy 28, 639-648.

[24] Brennan, E M (1999) Population, Urbanization, Environment and Security: A Summary of the Issues, Washington DC, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Comparative Urban Studies Occasional Papers Series, 22.

[25] Kwasi N. G. (2004). Urbanization Process – Environmental and Health Effects in Africa. Population Environment Research Network (PERN) Cyber seminar, Urban Expansion: The Environmental and

[26] Health Dimension.

[27] Oyesiku, K and Alade, W. (2010). Historical Development of Urban and Regional Planning in Nigeria State of Planning Report, Nigerian Institute of Town Planners.