Mon-Fri(09:00-18:00 hrs)

Articulating the Effect of Pesticides Use and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): The Science of Improving Lives through Decision Impacts

Morufu Olalekan Raimi

Department of Community Medicine, Environmental Health Unit, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Tonye Vivien Odubo

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Nigeria

Ogah Alima

School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom

Henry Akpojubaro Efegbere

Department of Community Medicine, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria

Abinotami Williams Ebuete

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Nigeria

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i1.347

Received: 1 February 2021; Accepted: 8 February 2021; Published Online: 30 March 2021

Copyright © 2021 Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Tonye Vivien Odubo, Ogah Alima, Henry Akpojubaro Efegbere, Abinotami Williams Ebuete. Published by Nan Yang Academy of Sciences Pte. Ltd.

Creative Commons LicenseThis is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.


Nothing vast comes into a mortal’s life without a curse. Identifying the pathways of pesticide impact can be multifaceted as well as complex, as humankind faces the magnificent challenge of food systems reconfiguration toward providing and delivering healthy foods that individuals can access while protecting planetary health. Ideally, chemical pesticides used inappropriately in agricultural activities has shaped serious health as well as environmental problems in the global south. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) as well as World Health Organization (WHO) approximate that the rates of pesticide poisoning occur 2-3 times per minute, having roughly 20,000 employees dying yearly from exposure, mostly in emerging countries. From an environmental point of view, “chemically-polluted runoff” comes through fields that pollute both ground as well as surface waters, destroying freshwater ecosystems, damaged fisheries, as well as creating growing and sustainable "dead zones" in the coastal areas near the river’s mouths of the drain agricultural areas. The environmental as well as health hazards resulting from pesticides could remain comparatively avoided through education as the first step towards achieving the SDGs as well as creating sustainable incentives toward curbing the overuse trend.  Other important challenges need to be resolved, for example social inclusion; poverty reduction; education, increased equity as well as health care; sustainable energy; conservation of biodiversity; water security; and changing climate adaptation as well as mitigation. These challenges are interlinked as well as embodied in 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which all UN member states have accepted since 2015 as well as built round the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Therefore, managing the rapid accelerators considerately will need negotiation as well as collaboration from a wide range of civil society sector, private as well as public actors. The time has come toward putting the challenge of sociotechnical innovation as well as massive human ingenuity toward usage to safeguard the next generations as well as the planet future. While, the world is not on the pathway toward realizing its global goals come 2030. Prior to the outbreak of COVID-19, uneven progress had been witnessed, as well as more focused considerations was required in many areas. The sudden onset of the pandemic abruptly hampered the SDGs implementation and, in other cases, twisted decades of progress backwards.

Keywords: Human ingenuity, Decision impacts, Sustainable Development Goals, Planetary health, Pesticides, Dialogue and cooperation, Outreach programs, Nigeria


[1] Adedoyin OO, Olalekan RM, Olawale SH, et al (2020). A review of environmental, social and health impact assessment (Eshia) practice in Nigeria: a panacea for sustainable development and decision making. MOJ Public Health. 2020;9(3):81‒87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/mojph.2020.09.00328. https://medcraveonline.com/MOJPH/MOJPH-09-00328.pdf.

[2] Adeolu T., Odipe O. E. and Raimi M. O. (2018). Practices and Knowledge of Household Residents to Lead Exposure in Indoor Environment in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports 19(6): 1-10, 2018; Article NO. JSRR.43133 ISSN: 2320-0227.

[3] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2018). Future of food and agriculture 2018: alternative pathways to 2050. 2018. http://www.fao.org/3/CA1553EN/ca1553en.pdf (accessed Sept 24, 2020).

[4] Gift RA, Olalekan RM, Owobi OE, Oluwakemi RM, Anu B, Funmilayo AA (2020). Nigerians crying for availability of electricity and water: a key driver to life coping measures for deepening stay at home inclusion to slow covid-19 spread. Open Access Journal of Science. 2020;4(3):69‒80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/oajs.2020.04.00155.

[5] Gift R A, Olalekan RM (2020). Access to electricity and water in Nigeria: a panacea to slow the spread of Covid-19. Open Access J Sci. 2020;4(2):34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/oajs.2020.04.00148.

[6] Isah, H. M., Sawyerr, H. O., Raimi, M. O., Bashir, B. G., Haladu, S. & Odipe, O. E. (2020). Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides and Frequency of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning Management (JELM), HolyKnight, vol. 1, 31-54. DOI: https://doi.org10.46410/jelm.2020.1.1.05.

[7] Isah Hussain Muhammad, Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Sawyerr Henry Olawale, Odipe Oluwaseun Emmanuel, Bashir Bala Getso, Suleiman Haladu (2020) Qualitative Adverse Health Experience Associated with Pesticides Usage among Farmers from Kura, Kano State, Nigeria. Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2354-323X) Vol. 8(8) pp. 432-447, August, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4008682.

[8] Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Ebikapaye Okoyen, Tuebi Moses, Aziba-anyam Gift Raimi, Adedoyin Oluwatoyin Omidiji, Aishat Funmilayo Abdulraheem, Mariam Oluwakemi Raimi, Beatrice Oka Joseph (2021) Do Weak Institutions Prolong Crises? [#ENDSARs] in the Light of the Challenges and opportunities beyond COVID-19 Pandemic and the Next Normal in Nigeria. Communication, Society and Media. ISSN 2576-5388 (Print) ISSN 2576-5396 (Online) Vol. 4, No. 2, DOI: https://doi.org/10.22158/csm.v4n2p1.

[9] Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Tonye Vivien Odubo & Adedoyin Oluwatoyin Omidiji (2021) Creating the Healthiest Nation: Climate Change and Environmental Health Impacts in Nigeria: A Narrative Review. Scholink Sustainability in Environment. ISSN 2470-637X (Print) ISSN 2470-6388 (Online) Vol. 6, No. 1, 2021. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22158/se.v6n1p61.

[10] Morufu Olalekan Raimi (2021). “Self-reported Symptoms on Farmers Health and Commonly Used Pesticides Related to Exposure in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria”. Annals of Community Medicine & Public Health. 1(1): 1002. http://www.remedypublications.com/open-access/self-reported-symptoms-on-farmers-health-and-commonly-used-pesticides-related-6595.pdf.

[11] Olalekan RM, Muhammad IH, Okoronkwo UL, Akopjubaro EH (2020). Assessment of safety practices and farmer’s behaviors adopted when handling pesticides in rural Kano state, Nigeria. Arts & Humanities Open Access Journal. 2020;4(5):191‒201. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/ahoaj.2020.04.00170.

[12] Olalekan R. M, Dodeye E. O, Efegbere H. A, Odipe O. E. Deinkuro N. S, Babatunde A and Ochayi E. O (2020) Leaving No One Behind? Drinking-Water Challenge on the Rise in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Review. Merit Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology (ISSN: 2350-2266) Vol. 6(1): 031-049 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3779288.

[13] Olalekan RM, Oluwatoyin OA, Olawale SH, Emmanuel OO, Olalekan AZ (2020) A Critical Review of Health Impact Assessment: Towards Strengthening the Knowledge of Decision Makers Understand Sustainable Development Goals in the Twenty-First Century: Necessity Today; Essentiality Tomorrow. Research and Advances: Environmental Sciences. 2020(1): 72-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33513/RAES/2001-13.

[14] Olalekan R. M, Oluwatoyin O and Olalekan A (2020) Health Impact Assessment: A tool to Advance the Knowledge of Policy Makers Understand Sustainable Development Goals: A Review. ES Journal of Public Health; 1(1); 1002. https://escientificlibrary.com/public-health/in-press.php.

[15] Olalekan RM (2020). “What we learn today is how we behave tomorrow”: a study on satisfaction level and implementation of environmental health ethics in Nigeria institutions. Open Access Journal of Science; 4(3):82‒92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/oajs.2020.04.00156.

[16] Olalekan RM, Adedoyin OO, Ayibatonbira A, et al (2019). “Digging deeper” evidence on water crisis and its solution in Nigeria for Bayelsa state: a study of current scenario. International Journal of Hydrology. 2019;3(4):244‒257. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/ijh.2019.03.00187.

[17] Olalekan RM, Omidiji AO, Williams EA, Christianah MB, Modupe O (2019). The roles of all tiers of government and development partners in environmental conservation of natural resource: a case study in Nigeria. MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences 2019;4(3):114‒121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/mojes.2019.04.00142.

[18] Olalekan R. M, Vivien O. T, Adedoyin O. O, et al. (2018). The sources of water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in oil producing communities in central senatorial district of Bayelsa state, Nigeria. MOJ Public Health. 2018;7(6):337‒345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/mojph.2018.07.00265.

[19] Omidiji A. O and Raimi M. O (2019) Practitioners Perspective of Environmental, Social and Health Impact Assessment (ESHIA) Practice in Nigeria: A Vital Instrument for Sustainable Development. Paper Presented at the Association for Environmental Impact Assessment of Nigeria (AEIAN) On Impact Assessment: A Tool for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria, 7th and 8th November, 2019 In University of Port Harcourt. https://aeian.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/EIA-Presentations-Portharcourt.pdf.

[20] Raimi Morufu Olalekan & Raimi Aziba-anyam Gift (2020). The Toughest Triage in Decision Impacts: Rethinking Scientific Evidence for Environmental and Human Health Action in the Times of Concomitant Global Crises. CPQ Medicine, 11(1), 01-05.

[21] Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Moses Tuebi, Okoyen Ebikapaye, Sawyerr Henry Olawale, Joseph Beatrice Oka, Oyinlola Bilewu Olaolu (2020) “A Beacon for Dark Times: Rethinking Scientific Evidence for Environmental and Public Health Action in the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 Era” Medical and Research Microbiology, Vol. 1, Issues 3.

[22] Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Ihuoma Blossom Adindu, Esther Onyinyechi Udensin, Abdulraheem Aishat Funmilayo, Opufou Tarekebi, Deinkuro Nimisingha Sanchez, Adebayo Patrick Adekunle and Adeniji Anthony Olusola (2020) “Health Impact Assessment: Expanding Public Policy Tools for Promoting Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Nigeria”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 4.9 (2020).

[23] Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Sawyerr Henry Olawale and Isah Hussain Muhammad (2020) Health risk exposure to cypermethrin: A case study of kano state, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture. 7th International Conference on Public Healthcare and Epidemiology. September 14-15, 2020 | Tokyo, Japan.

[24] Raimi M. O, Omidiji A. O, Adio Z. O (2019) Health Impact Assessment: A Tool to Advance the Knowledge of Policy Makers Understand Sustainable Development Goals. Conference paper presented at the: Association for Environmental Impact Assessment of Nigeria (AEIAN) On Impact Assessment: A Tool for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria, 7th and 8th November, 2019 in University of Port Harcourt. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.35999.51366

[25] Raimi Morufu Olalekan., Oluwaseun Emmanuel Odipe, Nimisingha Deinkuro Sanchez, Abdulraheem Aishat Funmilayo, Okolosi-Patainnocent Edewor, Habeeb Modupe Lateefat1 and Mary Fadeyibi (2019) Assessment of Environmental Sanitation, Food Safety Knowledge, Handling Practice among Food Handlers of Bukateria Complexes in Iju Town, Akure North of Ondo-State, Nigeria. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 3.6 (2019): 186-200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31080/ASNH.2019.03.0308.

[26] Raimi M. O, Abdulraheem A. F, Major Iteimowei, Odipe O. E, Isa H. M, Onyeche Chinwendu (2019). The Sources of Water Supply, Sanitation Facilities and Hygiene Practices in an Island Community: Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Public Health Open Access 2019, 3(1): 000134. ISSN: 2578-5001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23880/phoa-16000134.

[27] Raimi Morufu Olalekan (2019) 21st Century Emerging Issues in Pollution Control. 6th Global Summit and Expo on Pollution Control May 06-07, 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands.

[28] Raimi M. O, Bilewu O. O, Adio Z. O, Abdulrahman H (2019) Women Contributions to Sustainable Environments in Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research in Allied Sciences. 5(4), 35-51. ISSN NO. 2455-5800. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26838/JUSRES.2019.5.4.104.

[29] Raimi M O, Suleiman R M, Odipe O E, Salami J T, Oshatunberu M, et al (2019). Women Role in Environmental Conservation and Development in Nigeria. Ecology & Conservation Science; 1(2): DOI: https://doi.org/10.19080/ECOA.2019.01.555558.

[30] Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Tonye V. Odubo, Omidiji Adedoyin O, Oluwaseun E. Odipe (2018) Environmental Health and Climate Change in Nigeria. World Congress on Global Warming. Valencia, Spain. December 06-07, 2018.

[31] Raimi, M. O, Pigha, Tarilayun K and Ochayi, E. O (2017) Water-Related Problems and Health Conditions in the Oil Producing Communities in Central Senatorial District of Bayelsa State. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Vol-3, Issue-6, ISSN: 2454-1362.

[32] Samson T.K., Ogunlaran O.M., Raimi O.M (2020); A Predictive Model for Confirmed Cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria. European Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 8, No 4, Aug 2020;pp:1-10. DOI: 10.14738/aivp.84.8705. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14738/aivp.84.8705.

[33] Sawyerr O. H, Odipe O. E, Olalekan R. M, et al. (2018) Assessment of cyanide and some heavy metals concentration in consumable cassava flour “lafun” across Osogbo metropolis, Nigeria. MOJ Eco Environ Sci. 2018;3(6):369‒372. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/mojes.2018.03.00115.

[34] Suleiman Romoke Monsurat, Raimi Morufu Olalekan and Sawyerr Henry Olawale (2019) A Deep Dive into the Review of National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) Act. International Research Journal of Applied Sciences. pISSN: 2663-5577, eISSN: 2663-5585. DOI No. Irjas.2019.123.123. https://scirange.com/abstract/irjas.2019.108.125.

[35] United Nations (2018). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision. Key Facts. Technical report, United Nations.

[36] UN (2011), World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, New York.

[37] UN (2010), World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision, UN Habitat, New York.

[38] UN (United Nations) (2009), World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision, New York.

[39] UN Habitat (2006), State of the World’s Cities: 2006/2007, UN Habitat, New York.

[40] UN Habitat (2003), The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, UN Habitat, New York.

[41] World Bank (2010), World Development Indicators, World Bank, Washington, DC, http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

Online ISSN: 2737-4785, Print ISSN: 2737-4777, Published by Nan Yang Academy of Sciences Pte. Ltd.