Mon-Fri(09:00-18:00 hrs)

Adsorption Equilibrium, Physicochemical Parameters and Colour Deactivation Effects of Activated Carbon for Dye for Waste Water Treatment

Alhassan M

Department of Chemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

Muhammad Sani Aleiro

Department of Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aleiro Kebbi State, Nigeria

Umar A.U

Department of Chemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i1.345

Received: 1 December 2020; Accepted: 8 January 2021; Published Online: 30 March 2021

Copyright © 2021 Alhassan M, Muhammad Sani Aleiro, Umar A.U. Published by Nan Yang Academy of Sciences Pte. Ltd.

Creative Commons LicenseThis is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.


Effluents from dye and dyeing industries constitute serious environmental threat and attracting serious attention. Activated carbon prepared from guinea corn husk and maize cobs waste materials was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon. Variable ratios of the constituent ashes ( 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1) were prepared. The husk and cobs were ashed in a murfle furnace at 400-500oC for 2.5 h. Acid activation was carried out   by washing with HCl (1M) after which it was characterized using XRF which revealed (in variable proportions) the presence of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 as dominant oxides in the ashes. Waste water decolourization efficiency of the adsorbents was tested using dye waste water at same contact time using variable absorbent dosage. Higher moisture (96.80±0.56), Ash (12.90±0.35), pH (6.3±0.17), Conductivity (208±1.34) and Bulk density (12.27±0.61) were obtained for guinea corn husk. The best clearity was obtained after batch adsorption experiments at 1:1 which gave the highest adsorption at equilibrium (Qe) of 28.55 compared to 12.750 and 10.900 obtained for 1;3 and 3:1 respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption equilibrium, Dye waste water, Activated carbon, Decolourization


[1] Bansode, R. R., Lorso, J. N., Marshal, W. E., Rao, R. M. and Portier, J. (2002). Adsorption of metal ions by pecan shell granular activated carbon, Bioresource Technol.,89:p 115 – 119.

[2] Garg, V., Amita, M., Kumar R., Gupta, R (2004). Basic dye (methylene blue) removal from simulated waste water by adsorption using Indian rosewood sawdust. Dye and Pigment. 63(1): p243-250.

[3] Malik, P.K(2004) “Dye removal from wastewater using activated carbon developed from sawdust: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics,”Journal of Hazardous Materials., Volume 113, Issues 1–3, 10,p 81–88

[4] JyotsnaGoel, Krishna Kadirvelu ChitraRajagopal, Vinod Kumar Garg,( 2005)“Removal of lead(II) by adsorption using treatedgranular activated carbon: Batch and column studies”,Journal of Hazardous Materials.,Volume 125, Issues 1–3, 17, p211–220

[5] Bansal, R. P. and Goyal, M. (2005). Activated Carbon Adsorption, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway N.W, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL, USA.

[6] Crini G, badot, PM (2008) Progres in Polymer Science 33 399

[7] Tadda , M.A. Ahsan, A , Shitu. A, ElSergany. M, Arunkumar, T. Bipin. J. Abdur Razzaque M. Nik Daud. N (2017). A Review on Activated Carbon: Process, Application and Prospects. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research. 2(1):7-13,

[8] Labanda J, sabete, J Liorens, J (2009) journal of membrane science 340 234

[9] Lenzy GG, Evangelista, RF, Duarte, ER, Colpini, LSM, Fornari AC, Neto RM, Jorge, LMM, and Santos OAA (2016) desalination and water treatment 57(30) 14132

[10] Shi, B, Li B Wang D Feng H and Tang H (2007) journal of hazardous materials 143 567

[11] Akbari A, Remigy JC, and Aptel P (2002) Chemical Engineeering Processs 41 601

[12] Pia AB, Roca, JAM, Miranda MIA, Clar AI, and Clar MII (2003) Desalination 157 73

[13] Han R, Zhang J, Han P Wang y, Zhao Z and tang M (2009) Chemical engineering Journal 145 496

[14] Shen, Y fan, CC, wei YZ, Du J, Zhu, HB and Zhao Y (2012) Dalton Trans 45 10909.

[15] Lazim, ZM, Mzuin E, hadibarata T and Yusop Z (2015) Journal of Teknogi 74(11) 129

[16] Mittal, A, Jain, R, Mittal J, Varshey S and Sikarwar S (2010) International Journal of Environmental Pollution 43 308

[17] Ngah, WS, Teong LC, and hanafiah, MAKM (2011) carbohydrate Polymers 83 1446

[18] Mahmoodi NM, Arami M and Gharanjig K (2013) Journal Of Environmental And Chemical Engineering 1 406

[19] Kiakhani, MS, Arami, M and gharanjig, K (2013) Journal Of Environmental and Chemical Engineering 1 406

[20] Aziz, H.A., Aliaz, S., Adian, M.N., faridah, Assari, A.H. and Zahari, M.S. (2007) Color removal from landfill leachate by coagulation and Flocculation processes. Bioresource Technology. 98 218-220

[21] Buah. W. MacCarthy, J. Ndur, S.(2016). Conversion of Corn Cobs Waste into Activated Carbons for Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Minerals Processing Wastewater. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. 2330-7536

[22] Galvan-Ruiz, M., Hernandez, J., Banos, L., Noriega-Mntes, J. and Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E (2019). Chaarcterization of Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Oxide and Calcium Hydroxide as Starting Point to the Improvement of Lime for Their Use in Construction. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 1-20 available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232815496

[23] Kaghazchi T, Madadi M, Yeganeh, M. Soleimani,(2006) in proc. Of CHISA (Ed: Jan Novosad), Czech Society Chemical Engineers, Prague, Czech Republic,

[24] Odebunmi, E., Okeola, F (2001). Preparation and characterization of activatd carbon from waste material. Journal chemical society of Nigeria 26(2): 49-155.

[25] Itodo, U.A (2010); Comparative Studies on the preparation, Adsorption and Evaluation of Activated carbon from selected Animals and agricultural wastes. a Ph.D thesis UDUS

[26] Omomnhenle, S., Ofomaja, A., Okiemen, F (2006) sorption of methylene blue by unmodified and modified citric acid saw dust. Journal chemical society of Nigeria. 390 (1 and 2): p161-164.

[27] Zahangir, A., suleyman A. and Noraini, K (2008) production of Activated carbon from oil palm empty fruit Bunch for Zn Removal. Bul. Conference proceedings 12th int’l water Tech conf. IWTC12 Egypt. P373-383.

[28] Gimba, C., Ocholi, O., Nok, A (2004). Preparation of activated carbon from agricultural coastes ii. cyanide binding with activated carbon matrix from groundnut shell. nig journal of scientific research. 4 (2); p106-110.

[29] Rahman, A., Saad, B., Shaidan, S. and Rizal, S. (2002). Adsorption characteristics of malachite Green on ctivated Carbon Dervied from Rice Husks produced by Chemical Thermal process. Bioresearches Technology, 90(14): p1578-1583

[30] Umar, K. J., Alhassan, M. Ahmad, T. I., Zauro, S. A., Sani, N. A., Lawal, A. M. & Hassan, L. G.(2012). The Proximate, Mineral And Fatty Acids Profile Of White Grubs (Scarabidae) African Journal of Natural Sciences 2012, 15, 7 - 11

[31] Yoshiyuki, S.,. Yutaka, K. (2005) paralysis of plant, animal and Human waste; physical chemical charctristics of the pyrolytic product. Bioresoruce Technology 90(3); p241-247

[32] Alhassan, M., Faruq, U.Z. and Galadima, A. (2019). Mixed-Metal Oxide Catalyst for Liquid Phase Benzene Alkylation. Earthline Journal of Chemical SciencesISSN (Online): 2581-9003 Volume 2, Number 2, 2019, Pages 217-234 https://doi.org/10.34198/ejcs.2219.217234

[33] Odewumi, S.C., Adekeye, J.I.D. and Ojo, O.J. (2012) Petrogenesis and Geotectonic settings of the Granitic rocks of Idefin-Osi-Eruku Area, South western Nigeria Using trace Elements and Rare Earth Element Geochemistry. African jurnal of Natural Sciences 15, 39-51

[34] Zhang, B. , Ji, Y., Wang, Z., Liu, Y., Sun, H., Yang, W. and Wu, P. (2012) Liquid-phase alkylation of benzene with ethylene over postsynthesized MCM-56 analogues, Applied Catalysis A:General 443-444; 103-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2012.07.028

Online ISSN: 2737-4785, Print ISSN: 2737-4777, Published by Nan Yang Academy of Sciences Pte. Ltd.